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The association between clinical risk factors and outcome of diabetic foot ulcers

  • Jan Apelqvist
  • Carl-David Agardh
Publishing year: 1992
Language: English
Pages: 43-53
Publication/Series: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Volume: 18
Issue: 1
Document type: Journal article
Publisher: Elsevier

Abstract english

OBJECTIVE. The aim of the study was to describe the association between clinical risk factors in diabetic patients with food ulcers in relation to outcome. DESIGN. A prospective study of 314 consecutively presenting diabetic patients with foot ulcers referred to the Department of Internal Medicine between July 1, 1983 and June 30, 1987. All patients were followed to final outcome. SETTING. All patients were treated by the same multi-disciplinary foot care team at the Department of Medicine, both as in- and out-patients. Healing was defined as intact skin for at least 6 months. RESULTS. One hundred and ninety-seven patients healed primarily, 77 after amputation, and 40 died unhealed. Signs of macroangiopathy were more common among patients who healed after amputation. The outcome was strongly related to age, though 43% of the patients with an age over 80 years healed primarily. There was no difference in smoking habits between patients who healed primarily and those who required amputation to heal. Diabetic nephropathy was found in 26% of the patients and was strongly associated with amputation. Presence of retinopathy was found in 54% of the patients, but this finding was not related to the outcome. There were no differences in short-term metabolic control as assessed by hemoglobin A1c levels between patients who healed primarily and those who healed after amputation. CONCLUSION. The presence of diabetic foot ulcers was strongly associated with age and diabetic complications such as multiple cardiovascular disease and nephropathy, which were important factors related to amputation.


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes
  • Foot ulcer
  • Clinical risk factors
  • Outcome
  • Diabetes mellitus


  • Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology
  • ISSN: 1872-8227
E-mail: jan [dot] apelqvist [at] med [dot] lu [dot] se


Genomics, Diabetes and Endocrinology

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